The thesis publication can be downloaded here.
The thesis presentation was held at LTU February 17 2006
It took almost 13 months from the first sketch to make this engine; and it has been really challenging to analyze engine design in all areas. By modelling the whole engine in CAD-software there has been a perfect fit between the parts, the only part that had to be remade was the cam chain guides to get right chain tension.
The most time-consuming part was the intake runners and throttle bodies. Longest delivery time was eight months. This project could never have been done without the manufacturing skills at Mossbergs Mek. AB.
The engine has to be thoughtfully tested and certainly modified to ensure maximum reliability.
// Thomas Johansson //
The MSc thesis work is aimed to analyze, simulate and build an unique engine, where a fully functional prototype is made. The engine is a W-9, ie a nine cylinder four-stroke engine with three cylinder rows in an extremely compact, stiff and lightweight construction.
The goal with the thesis work is to scientifically combine different areas where advanced computer programs is used to construct a combustion engine from scratch.
The construction is inspired by racing engines and motorcycles with broad power band and high maximum rpm. The engine components is made in lightweight and strong materials.
The engine construction is evaluated in following areas:
- The lubrication system and its tolerances, flows, pressures and viscosity needs.
- The crank train and its forces, torque, and vibrations.
- The valve train and its characteristics.
- The cooling system and its heat capacity and flow.
- Strength and stiffness of components.
- Production of the engine components.
- The gas exchange process in exhaust and intake is optimized for high efficiency.
The whole engine is constructed in the CAD programs I-deas and Inventor, where the components are FE analyzed and strength optimized.
Simulation of the moving parts is made in multi-body dynamic program MSC ADAMS Engine.
Heat conduction and cooling flow is evaluated in the CFD program CFX.
The design of intake and exhaust-system is done according to a program I have done, based on extensive dyno testing.
The engine is constructed for a mid-engined sports car where the engine is a stressed member of the chassis.
What are the advantages with a W-9 engine one might ask, some favorable properties is that the engine become extremely compact which leads to low overall weight with a low center of gravity.
It has less main bearings than comparable engines which leads to improved efficiency. As the engine sound should be astonishing to say at least, is certainly no disadvantage.
W-9 technical data
- 9 cylinder four-stroke engine in W formation with 3 cylinder rows.
- Cylinder volume: 2977 cm³ ( 182 in³)
- Bore: 90 mm
- Stroke: 52 mm
- Max rpm: 12500
- Compression: 12,7:1
- W-angle: 60°-0°-60°
- Fuel: Ethanol, E85
- Head layout: 4-valve, 20° included valve angle
- Dimensions: LxWxH, 434x623x448mm (17,1x24,5x17,6 ")
- Weight: 118 kg ( 262 lbs) complete with exhaust system
- Max torque (est.): 380 Nm ( 280 lbs-ft)@ 7200 rpm (bmep: 15,7 bar ; 228 psi)
- Max power (est.): 526 hp@ 10700 rpm (bmep: 14,6 bar ; 211 psi), dimensioned for Tri-Turbo 1005 hp
Machining: CAM programming, CNC milling and turning by Mossbergs Mek. AB
Engine block and cyl. head: Aluminium AA5026 from Metallcenter, Malmö
Crankshaft: EN40B, according to my drawings by Farndon
Cylinder liner: Wet, high strength steel from Uddeholm
Camshaft: High strength steel from Uddeholm
Valve seats: Beryllium-copper from Uddeholm
Pistons: JE, custom, from MotoSpeed
Valve springs: APE from MotoSpeed
Valves: KPMI from MotoSpeed
O-rings: from Momentum
Bolts: from Itek
Fuel injectors: from NLR Systems
Connecting rods: Made to drawing by Auto Verdi
Oil system: Dry sump with oil pump from Auto Verdi
Intake manifold: Carbon fiber, manufactured at APC Composite
Fuel injection: 46,5 mm throttle body with P8PRO ECU
Exhaust system: SS 304, 9-3-1
Valve seats is machined at MC Xpress.
Combined oil/scavening pump.
Only 36 valves to adjust.
The manufacturing of carbon fiber parts is done with vacuum infusion.
CNC-lightening of the piston took away a massive 65 grams, as always the machining was excellent- By Mossbergs Mek. AB.
A couple of late nights with the cutter and the TIG, and voila- an equal length conical header 9-3-1 exhaust system.
The pistons are in but they are in need for some CNC-lightening.
The crankshaft is finally here.
The engine block and cylinder heads is machined and done in less than six months after the thesis work started.
Thanks to Mossbergs Mek. AB:s enormous skills and accuracy
the machining went extremely smooth.
Beautiful connecting rods.
Valve seats is turned in a CNC-machine.
The engine cover is ready for anodic coating.
Line boring of main bearings at Kristianstads Motorslip AB.
The dry sump.
Manufacturing of cylinder liners.
The engine block is taking shape.
4-axle CNC machining of the cylinder heads.
Milling of the cam cover, ready for the anodic coating.
Manufacturing of camshafts and cam sprockets.
250 kg ( 550 lbs) aluminium is going to be transformed to an engine.
The design of intake and exhaust channels.
Valve train analysis in MSC ADAMS Engine.
Simulation of the crank train in MSC ADAMS Engine.
FE analysis of connecting rod and piston.
CAD image of the crankshaft.
FE analysis of the crankshaft.
CAD image of exhaust manifold.
FE analysis of cylinder liner.
Engine simulation in GT-power .